Download PDF

Building Automation and Controls (BAC)

Building Automation and Controls (BAC) are a combination of hardware and software that control a building’s power systems; lighting and illumination; electric power and control; security, observation and magnetic card access; heating, ventilation and air-conditioning systems (HVAC); outdoor controls; lift, elevator and escalator controls; entertainment and BMS (Building Management Systems).

BAC systems provide efficient control of internal comfort conditions, individual room control, increased staff productivity, effective use of energy, improved building reliability and life, quick and effective responses to HVAC problems, and save time and money. The systems also provide information on problems in the building, allow for computerized maintenance scheduling, are easy and effective for employees to use, and easily detect problems.

Building management systems are most commonly implemented in large projects with extensive mechanical, HVAC, electrical, and plumbing systems. Systems linked to a BMS typically represent 40% of a building's energy usage; if lighting is included, this number approaches to 70%. BMS systems are a critical component of managing energy demand. Improperly configured BMS systems are believed to account for 20% of building energy usage, or approximately 8% of total energy usage in the United States.

In addition to controlling the building's internal environment, BMS systems are sometimes linked to access control (turnstiles and access doors controlling who is allowed access and egress to the building) or other security systems such as closed-circuit television (CCTV) and motion detectors. Fire alarm systems and elevators are also sometimes linked to a BMS, for monitoring. In case a fire is detected then only the fire alarm panel could shut off dampers in the ventilation system to stop smoke spreading and send all the elevators to the ground floor and park them to prevent people from using them.

 

more...
  • INDUSTRIES
  • Energy
  • FUNCTIONS
  • Maintenance
    Product Development
  • CASE STUDIES
  • Advantech: Intelligent Building Automation System and Energy Saving Solution
    One of the most difficult problems facing the world is conserving energy in buildings. However, it is not easy to have a cost-effective solution to reduce energy usage in a building. One solution for saving energy is to implement an intelligent building automation system (BAS) which can be controlled according to its schedule. In Indonesia a large university with a five floor building and 22 classrooms wanted to save the amount of energy being used.
    Cisco: Cisco Connected Real Estate for Healthcare
    Today's healthcare providers face a daunting challenge: sustaining or improving patient care levels despite shortages of clinicians and nurses, increasing competition, and financial pressure.
    Adroit Technologies: Star Refrigeration
    Star Refrigeration’s TELSTAR control system uses the LonWorks® network. This fieldbus network has become the standard for the building management industry, which encompasses refrigeration and air conditioning. Star’s Electronic Systems Manager and Senior Development Engineers needed to source a SCADA HMI which would fulfil their data acquisition and monitoring requirements and match their networking needs. The ability to fit into LonWorks was a key requirement for the project. Adroit adopted a close, co-operative approach and adapted their SCADA HMI by writing a comprehensive interface to the LonWorks network. The Adroit SCADA HMI monitors data and performance of industrial refrigeration plants manufactured and installed by Star. In addition, the system provides an operator interface for altering plant control, with appropriate levels of security, using the TELSTAR system. The software is now the main data monitoring operator interface for TELSTAR, and is used in applications ranging from ice rinks and air conditioning to pharmaceuticals, distilling, fish processing and food storage. Star’s Development Engineers received training from Adroit, attending Adroit 2 + 1, a fast track course designed for system integrators and experienced end users, and the Adroit Advanced course. Star Refrigeration staff are now able to carry out their own in-house Adroit training for operators.
  • MARKET SIZE
  • The building automation system (BAS) market was valued at USD 53.66 billion in 2016 and is expected to reach USD 99.11 billion by 2022, at a CAGR of 10.73% between 2017 and 2022

    Source: Markets & Markets

    The overall smart lighting market was valued at USD 6.32 billion in 2017 and is estimated to reach USD 20.98 billion by 2023, at a CAGR of 21.50% during the forecast period.

    Source: Markets & Markets

  • BUSINESS VIEWPOINT
  • What are the core functions of a BACS system?

    - Maintain control of the building's environment

    - Operate systems according to occupancy and energy demand

    - Monitor and correct the performance of systems

    - Sound alerts as required

    What are the facilities that may be controlled by a BACS?

    Mechanical systems, plumbing, electrical systems, heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC), lighting control, security and surveillance, alarms and lifts.

     

  • STAKEHOLDER VIEWPOINT
  • TECHNOLOGY VIEWPOINT
  • What sensors are typically used to provide data into the IoT system, and which factors define their deployment?

    Sensors that are low power or energy harvesting, miniature, secure and versatile lead to lower capital expenses, decreased maintenance costs and easier deployments. Data from the sensors are translated and transmitted through routers, gateways, nodes, and edge computers through a myriad of proprietary and open protocols. The gateways translate and bridge protocols and enable on premise control of the building through central workstations and mobile devices.

    What factors define the cloud and edge platforms used to integrate?

    Gateways also connect the building to the cloud through cellular or Ethernet connectivity. The cloud enables remote access, higher level analytics and communication with the grid and micro-grid.

    What are the basic components of a BACS?

    Sensors: Measure values such as temperature, humidity, lighting levels, room occupancy, and so on.

    Controllers: Instigate the system's response from the collected data, using algorithms that apply logic and send commands.

    Output devices: Carry out commands from the controller.

    Communications protocol: The 'language' used by the BACS components.

    Dashboard: The user interfaces for data reporting and interaction with the BACS system.

  • DATA VIEWPOINT
  • DEPLOYMENT CHALLENGES
  • What business challenges could impact deployment?

    Since organization structures vary, finding the optimal system and sensors to install is a great challenge. It is a case-by-case situation. Another challenge is overcoming the potential security issues that may arise and high initial investments.

     

© 2020 IoT ONE