A chatbot is a software application used to conduct an automated conversation via text or text-to-speech, in lieu of direct contact with a live human agent. Chatbot systems are designed to convincingly simulate the way humans behave as conversational partners. They require significant training and testing in order to approach the industry standard Turing test, a test of whether communication from a robotic system is distinguishable from communication with a human. There are two primary ways chatbots are used, via web-based applications or standalone applications. Today, chatbots are used most commonly in the customer service space, assuming roles traditionally performed by tier-1 support operatives and customer satisfaction representatives.